SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FROM AN "OTHER" POINT OF VIEW
Office: Parsons 1257; telephone: x7-4476
Fridays, 1:15-4:00 PM
- To learn more about the character and impact of science and engineering by exploring how they have been and are viewed by representatives of groups which have felt excluded or exploited, especially women, people of color, and underclass peoples of the "third world";
- To explore questions about why relatively few women, members of some ethnic groups in the U.S., and members of third world cultures participate in scientific and engineering professions, including questions about whether there are features of scientific and engineering institutions, conceptual structures, attitudes, and methodologies, which have encouraged and continue to encourage or amplify sexist, racist, and imperialist behaviors; and
- To develop ideas about how or whether HMC might find ways to encourage both (a) greater participation among those who have been excluded and (b) less exploitative practices and uses of science and engineering.
ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADING:
Written Responses to Readings (25%): By 10:30 AM before each class session, students should send a brief (one or two paragraphs, 150 words minimum) response to the reading for the day by email to me at <Richard_Olson@HMC.edu>. The response should do at least one of three things: (i) state something that you found particularly interesting or illuminating in the reading and state a question that the reading raised for you but failed to adequately answer; (ii) disagree with some claim made in the reading; and explain why; or (iii) relate the reading to something that has gone on in the class or in your life.
Grading will be on a 2 point system: zero (0) points for no posting or for one that does not demonstrate an honest engagement with the reading; one (1) point for a minimal response; and two (2) points for a thoughtful or thought provoking response. There are readings for 10 meetings. I will take the best 7(~70%) scores and average them. If the average is >1.66points, you will get an “A” for this section of the course grade; if it is between 1 and 1.66 points, you get a “C”; and if it is less than one point, you get no credit. Thus, thoughtful responses to just over half of the readings will net an "A" grade. There are no "B" or "D" grades for this portion of the grade.
Discussion Participation and Attendance (25%): Seminars depend for their success on the contributions of all members. If you are not prepared or not present, you cannot enrich the experiences of others in the class. Grading on this portion of the class will be based on the instructor’s assessment of the frequency and quality of your participation in discussions. More than three un-excused absences will lead to a lowering of the participation grade, so if you are gone from a meeting for a legitimate reason, please let me know.
Discussion Leading (15%): About 11 class sessions will be devoted substantially to the discussion of Common Readings. For each of these sessions, a team of two (or occasionally 3 if the number of students in the class is larger than 11) students will act as discussion facilitators, so that over the semester, each student will share responsibility for two class sessions. Although it would seem self-evident, failure to fulfill the responsibilities of a discussion leader for the session assigned will result in no credit for this portion of the grade.
Additional Perspectives Presentation (10%): Several sessions will be built at least in part around presentations based on readings which are not Common Readings. Each student should sign up for one special reading and should prepare a 4-page paper based on that reading to be submitted within one week of the presentation. Students should plan about a 10 minute presentation with an extra 5 minutes for questions. Again, although seemingly self-evident, failure to fulfill responsibilities relating to the presentation for the session assigned will result in zero credit for this portion of the grade.
Research Project (25%): Each student will write a substantial paper on some topic [details of which will be worked out in class] and offer an oral presentation to the seminar. Points on the research project will be distributed roughly as follows: 10% for the initial proposal and annotated bibliography; 50% for the written report; and 40% for the oral presentation. For planning purposes, each student group should assume that they will be scheduled for their class presentation as early as April 25.
Policy on Work Submitted Late: Except for work that impacts the rest of the class (see last sentence in paragraphs "Discussion Leading" and "Additional Perspectives Presentation" above), work will be accepted late as long as it is completed by the last day of classes (May 2). HOWEVER, there will be a penalty of 1/3 of a grade for every 24 hours or part thereof after the original due date that the work is submitted unless the appropriate college's academic administrator verifies that there is a legitimate reason for extending the deadline.
HMC students are automatically bound by the college’s Honor Code for research papers. Non-HMC students should be aware that when taking HMC courses (of which this is one), they are also governed by HMC Honor Code regulations.
THERE WILL BE NO FINAL EXAMINATION
RECOMMENDED BOOK PURCHASES:
The following books have been ordered through Huntley Bookstore. Major portions of each will be used during the semester:
- Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch, eds., The Gender and Science Reader;
- Suzanne Le-May Sheffield, Women and Science;
- Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940;
- Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor and Brian Uzzi, Athena Unbound;
- Sandra Harding, The Racial Economy of Science;
- John P. Jackson, Jr. and Nadine Weidman, Race, Racism, and Science;
- Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Ibulaimu Kakoma, Science and Technology in Africa.
In addition, a number of Common Readings will be placed on Sakai under "STS 185". Common Readings have been kept to an average of under 165 pp./week, but some weeks will be much lighter and others, much heavier.
Critical WEB Gateways: As far as I can tell, virtually all valuable Web sites related to this class can be found through two major bibliographical sites:
(i) Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Links: <http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/ellens/Gender/wom_and_min.html>
(ii) Race-Sci: History of “Race” in Science, Medicine, and Technology:
No comparable site exists for non-Western science; but there are two printed sources that can help in locating materials. Sprague has the first:
(i) Helaine Selin, Encyclopedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997).
(ii) Helaine Selin, Science Across Cultures: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1992).
- Research proposal/annotated bibliography due: April 4
- Oral reports scheduled: April 25 and May 2
- Research Paper due: May 2 - no later than 5:00PM
PROVISIONAL SCHEDULE OF READINGS, TOPICS, AND ACTIVITIES:
Part I: Introductory Overview
Meeting 1, January 25:
Aims and procedures for the course: introduction to members of the group. What is Science? What are the relations between Science and Technology? Preliminary thoughts.
Richard Olson and Norman Levitt “The Science Wars” in Michael Shermer, ed., The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, Vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, 2002); pp. 743-760 [on Sakai]
Meeting 2, February 1:
An overview of the themes of the course: Feminist, American Minority, and Developing World Underclass Concerns about Science and Technology
- Londa Schiebinger, "The History and Philosophy of Women in Science," in Harding and O'Barr, eds., Sex and Scientific Inquiry, pp. 7-34 [on Sakai];
- Suzanne Sheffield, “Introduction: Marie Curie, an Icon for Women Scientists” in Women and Science, pp. xi-xxxv;
"Introduction", pp. 1-20 in Willie Pearson and Kenneth Bechtel, eds., Blacks, Science, and American Education [on Sakai];
- Jeff Howard and Ray Hammond, “Rumors of Inferiority: Barriers to Black Success in America,” The New Republic, September 9, 1985, pp. 17-21 [on Sakai];
- Sandra Harding, ed., “Introduction: Eurocentric Scientific Illiteracy — A Challenge for the World Community,” and “Modern Science in Crisis: A Third World Response,” from The Racial Economy of Science, pp. 1-22, 484-518;
- Paul Zeleza, “Introduction” to Science and Technology in Africa, pp 1-31.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Sue V. Rosser, "Feminist Scholarship in the Sciences: Where Are We Now, and When Can We Expect a Theoretical Breakthrough," pp. 3-16 in Nancy Tuana, ed., Feminism and Science (Bloomington, 1989);
- Vivian Gornick, "Feminism and Science," in Women In Science (New York, 1983), pp. 144-162;
- Joan Rothschild, Machina ex dea: Feminist Perspectives on Technology (New York, 1983);
- Ruth Schwartz Cowan, "From Virginia Dare to Virginia Slims: Women and Technology in American Life," Technology and Culture, 20 (1979): 51-63;
- Sally Hacker, "The Culture of Engineering: Woman, Workplace, And Machine," Women's Studies International Quarterly, 4 (1981): 341-353;
- Sally Gregory Kohlstedt and Helen Longino, eds., Women, Gender, and Science, a special issue of Osiris, Vol. 12, 1997;
- Londa Schiebinger, Has Feminism Changed Science? (Cambridge, MA, 1999);
- John P. Jackson, Jr., ed. Science, Race, and Ethnicity: Readings from Isis and Osiris (Chicago, 2002);
- Akhtar Mahumud Faruqui, "Science and Technology: The Third World's Dilemma," Impact of Science on Society, 141, pp. 3-14;
- Thomas Mboya, "Technology in the Development of Africa: A Critique," Impact of Science on Society, 19 (1969): 331-342;
- Brian Easlea, Ch. 8, "Problems of Underdeveloped Countries," in Liberation and the Aims of Science (Totowa, NJ: 1973).
Part II: Women In/And Science and Technology
Meeting 3, February 8:
Women and Science -- Historical-Sociological and Biographical Approaches: The Recovery of Lost Women
- Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 -- ALL
(At 316 pages this will be the longest reading of the semester and it is not an unusually easy read; but if there is a single great classic of feminist analysis of women as scientists, this is it; so plan to spend some time this week.)
- In addition we need 3-4 “Additional Perspectives” volunteers, each to choose one of the studies listed below. Each volunteer should be prepared to give a brief (10 min.) discussion of the reading in relation to Rossiter’s work.
Sources of Additional Perspectives on Women and Technology:
- Ruth Schwartz Cowan, More Work for Mother (New York, 1983);
- Patrick D. Hopkins, ed., Sex/Machine: Readings in Culture, Gender, and Technology (Bloomington, 1998);
- Anne L. Macdonald, Feminine Ingenuity: How Women Inventors Changed America (New York, 1992);
Adele Clarke, “The Many Faces of RU 486:Tales of Situated Knowledge and Technological Contestations,” Science, Technology, and Human Values, 18 (1993): 42-78;
- Rima D. Apple, ed., Women, Health, and Medicine in America: A Historical Handbook (New York, 1990);
- Barbara Drygulski Wright, ed. Women, Work, and Technology: Transformations, (Ann Arbor, 1987);
- Roberta Furger, Does Jane Compute? Preserving our Daughters’ Place in the Cyber Revolution (New York, 1998);
- Rachel P. Maines, The Technology of Orgasm: “Hysteria, the Vibrator, and Women’s Sexual Satisfaction" (Baltimore, 1999);
- Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher, Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing (Cambridge, 2002);
- Glenna Mathews, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (Stanford, 2003).
Major Historical and Biographical Works on Women as Scientists:
- Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, eds., Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women In Science, 1789-1979 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1987), pp. 1-30, 45-59, 104-125;
- Helena Pycior, Nancy Slack, and Pnina Abir-Am, eds., Creative Couples in Science (New Brunswick, NJ, 1996);
- Ann Hibner Koblitz, A Convergence of Lives: Sofia Kovalevskia (Boston, 1983);
- Brenda Maddox, Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA; (New York, 2002);
- Barbara Goldsmith, Obsessive Genius: The Inner Worlds of Marie Curie (New York, 2005);
- Paul Brooks, The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work (Boston, 1972);
- Evelyn Fox Keller, A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Times of Barbara McClintock (San Francisco, 1983);
- Anne Sayre, Rosalind Franklin and DNA (New York, 1975);
- Gayle Greene, The Woman Who Knew Too Much: Alice Stewart and the Secrets of Radiation (University of Michigan 1999) [Gayle Greene teaches literature at Scripps College];
- Ruth H. Howes and Caroline L Herzenberg, Their Day in the Sun: Women and the Manhattan Project (Philadelphia, 1999).
Meeting 4, February 15:
More Historical Background to Women in Science
Suzanne Le-May Sheffield, Women and Science, pp. 1-30, 57-182.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, ed., History of Women in the Sciences: Readings from Isis (Chicago, 1999);
- David Noble, A World Without Women: The Christian Culture of Western Science (New York, 1992);
- Margaret Alic, Hypatia's Heritage: A History of Women in Science from Antiquity Through the Nineteenth Century (Boston, 1986);
- Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge, MA, 1989);
- Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action - 1940-1972 (Baltimore, 1995);
- Nina Baym, American Women of Letters and the Nineteenth Century Sciences: Styles of Affiliation;
- Margaret Eisenhart and Elizabeth Finkel, Women’s Science: Learning and Succeeding from the Margins (Chicago, 1998);
- Ellen S. Moore, Restoring the Balance: Women Physicians and the Profession of Medicine, 1850-1995 (Cambridge, MA, 1999);
- Miriam Levin, Defining Women’s Scientific Enterprise: Mount Holyoke Faculty and the Rise of American Science (Hanover, 2005).
Meeting 5, February 22:
Women as Scientists and Engineers: Recent and Contemporary Issues
- Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor and Brian Uzzi, Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology (all);
- Lederman and Bartsch, The Gender and Science Reader, pp. 13-62.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Jonathan Cole, Fair Science: Women in the Scientific Community (New York, 1979);
- Judith A. Ramaley, ed., Covert Discriminations and Women in the Sciences (Boulder, 1978);
- Harriet Zuckerman, Jonathan Cole and John Bruer, The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community, (New York, 1991);
- Gerhard Sonnert, Gender Differences in Science Careers (New Brunswick, 1995);
- Veronica Stolte-Heiskanen, ed., Women in Science: Token Women or Gender Equality (Oxford, 1991);
- Sue V. Rosser, The Science Glass Ceiling, (Taylor and Francis, 2004);
- Yu Xie and Kimberlee Shauman, Women in Science: Career Processes and Outcomes (Harvard, 2005).
Meeting 6, February 29:
Science, Technology, and the Construction of Gender; initial discussion of potential research topics
- Sheffield, Ch. 2, pp. 31 -56, 243- 272;
- Lederman and Bartsch, The Gender and Science Reader, pp. 68-97;
- Richard Olson, "Historical Reflections on Feminist Critiques of Science: The Scientific Background to Modern Feminism," History of Science, 28 (1990): 125-147 [on Sakai];
- Emily Martin, “The Egg and the Sperm: How Science has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles,” in Barbara Laslett, et. al., eds., Gender and Scientific Authority (Chicago, 1997), pp. 323-339 [on Sakai];
- Diane Halpern, “Sex, Brains, and Hands – Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities” Skeptic 2, pp. 96 103. [Found at <http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-03-15.html>].
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Thomas Laquer, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, 1990);
- Joan Cadden, Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture (Cambridge, 1993);
- Carolyn Merchant, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, And the Scientific Revolution (San Francisco, 1980);
- Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge, MA, 1989), esp. Chs. 6 and 7;
- Londa Schiebinger, Nature’s Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science (Boston, 1993);
- Evelyn Fox Keller, Reflections on Gender and Science (New Haven, 1985);
- Richard Olson, “Sex and Status in Scottish Enlightenment Social Science: John Millar and the Sociology of Gender Roles,” History of the Human Sciences, 11 (1998):73-100.
- Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980 (New York, 1985);
- Frank Mort, Dangerous Sexualities: Medico Moral Politics in England Since 1830 (London, 1987);
- Barbara Eherenreich and Deirdre English, For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the Experts' Advice to Women (New York, 1978);
- Ludmilla Jordanova, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine Between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Madison, 1989);
- Marina Benjamin, ed., Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Enquiry: 1780-1945 (Oxford, 1991);
- Cynthia Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, 1989);
- Eleanor Maccoly, "Feminine Intellect and the Demands of Science," Impact of Science on Society, 20, (1970): 13ff;
- Janet Sayers, "Psychological Sex Differences," in Alice Through the Microscope (London, 1980): 42-61;
- Julia Sherman, Sex Related Cognitive Differences: An Essay on Theory and Evidence (Springfield, IL, 1978);
- Judith Genova, "Women and the Mismeasurement of Thought," Hypatia, 3 (1988): 101-118;
- Diane Halpern, Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities (New York, 2000);
- Helen Lambert, "Biology and Equality: A Perspective on Sex Differences," in Harding and O'Barr, eds., Sex and Scientific Inquiry, pp. 125-146;
- L.J. Rogers, "Hormonal Theories of Sex Differences: Politics Disguised as a Science," Sex Roles, 9 (1983): 109-114;
- Barbara Seaman and Gideon Seaman, Women and the Crisis in Sex Hormones (New York, 1977);
- Donna Harraway, "Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic," in Harding and O'Barr, eds., Sex and Scientific Inquiry, pp. 217-232;
- Donna Harraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science (London, 1989);
- Naomi Quinn, "Anthropological Studies on Women's Status," Annual Review of Anthropology, 6 (1977): 181-225;
- E. O. Wilson, Sociobiology, The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA, 1975);
- David Stove, Darwinian Fairytales: Selfish Genes, Errors of Heredity, and Other Fables of Evolution, (New York, 2006).
Part III: Science, Technology, and Ethnicity
Meeting 7, March 7:
Science and Racism – Part I: Ethnography, Evolutionary Theory, Psychology, and Scientific Racism to the End of the 19th Century
- John P. Jackson, Jr. And Nadine Weidman, Race, Racism, and Science, pp. 1-127;
- Sandra Harding, The Racial Economy of Science, pp. 84-141.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Allan Johnston, Racism in America: The Scientific Contribution to the Nineteenth Century Race Debate (Victoria, Australia, 1982);
- George M. Frederickson, The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (New York, 1971);
- Alan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism (New York, 1977);
- William Stanton, The Leopard's Spots: Scientific Attitudes Toward Race in America: 1815-1859 (Chicago, 1960);
- John S. Haller, Outcasts From Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority: 1859-1900 (Urbana, 1971);
- Robert E. Bieder, Science Encounters The Indian, 1820-1880: The Early Years of American Ethnology (Norman, OK, 1986);
- Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York, 1981);
- Martin S. Staum, Labeling People: French Scholars on Society, Race, and Empire, 1815-1848 (Montreal, 2003).
Meeting 8, March 14:
Science and Racism – Part II: Scientific Racism and Anti-Racism in the 20th Century; Technology and the African American Experience
- Jackson and Weidman, pp. 129-236, 309-352.
- Jon Entine, “Breaking the Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We Are No Longer So Afraid to Talk About It,” Skeptic, 8 (2000): 29-35 [on Sakai];
- Harding, The Racial Economy of Science, pp. 458-471.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Otto Klineberg, "Race and Psychology," in L.C. Dunn, et. al., Race, Science, and Society (Paris: UNESCO, 1970), pp. 173-207;
- Michael Sokal, ed., Psychological Testing and American Society: 1890-1930 (New Brunswick, 1987);
- A.R. Jensen, et. al., Environment, Heredity, and Intelligence (Harvard Educational Reprint Series, #2, 1969);
- Wesley Critz George, The Biology of the Race Problem: A Study Prepared by Commission of the Governor of Alabama (Birmingham, 1962);
- Alan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism, Part III (Champaign, IL, 1980);
- Pat Shipman, The Evolution of Racism: Human Differences and the Use and Abuse of Science, (Harvard U. Press, 1994);
- Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (New York, 1994);
- Steven Fraser, ed., The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the Future of America (New York, 1995);
- Claude S. Fischer, et. al., Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth (Princeton, 1996);
- Ed Larson, Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South (Baltimore, 1996);
- Bruce Sinclair, Technology and the African American Experience (MIT Press, 2004);
- Venus Green, “Race and Technology: African American Women in the Bell System, 1945-1980,” Technology and Culture, 36 (1995), April supplement: 101-143;
- Francis Adeola, “Environmental Hazards, Health, and Racial Inequity in Hazardous Waste Distribution,” Environment and Behavior, 26 (1994):99-126.;
- Charlene Gilbert and Eli Quinn, Homecoming: The Story of African American Farmers (Beacon, 2000);
- Joe Trotter and Earl Lewis, African-Americans in the Industrial Age: A Documentary History, 1915-1945 (Northeastern University Press, 1996);
- Robert D. Bullard, ed. Environmental Justice and Communities of Color (Sierra Club Books, 1994);
- David Camacho, Environmental Injustice, Political Struggles: Race, Class, and the Environment (Duke University Press, 1998);
- Wornie Reed, Health and Medical Care for African-Americans (University of Massachusetts Press, 1992);
- Corey Lessig, Automobility and Social Change in the South, 1909-1939 (Garland, 2001);
- Donald Bogle, Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001);
- Bosah Ebo, ed., Cyberghetto or Cyberutopia: Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet (Praeger, 1998).
March 21 (Spring Break) or
March 28 (Cesar Chavez Day)
[start on research paper; but please consult with me before committing too much time and energy]
Meeting 9, April 4:
Underrepresented Minority Participation in STEM Fields
Note: Research proposal/annotated bibliography due
Harding, The Racial Economy of Science, pp. 201-258.
- "A Class Divided"
- "The Breeding of Impotence"
- Excerpts from the series “It's Intuitively Obvious” (on racial issues at MIT)
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Willie Pearson Jr. and H. Kenneth Bechtel, eds., Blacks, Science, and American Education (New Brunswick, 1989);
- S. J. Rakow and C. L. Walker, "The Status of Hispanic American Students in Science: Achievement and Exposure," Science Education, 69 (1984): 557-565;
- Roger Olstad, J. R. Juarez, L. J. Davenport, and D.L. Haury, Inhibitors to Achievement in Science and Mathematics by Ethnic Minorities (Pullman, WA, 1981) [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 223-404];
- L. S. Dix, ed., Minorities: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering (Washington, DC, 1987);
- Kenneth Manning, Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just (New York, 1983);
- Rayvon Fouché, Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation, (Baltimore, 2003);
- S. F. Berryman, Who Will Do Science? Trends and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation Among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics (New York, 1983);
- Clarence G. Williams, Technology and the Dream: Reflections on the Black Experience at MIT, 1941-1999, (Cambridge, MA, 2001);
- Bruce Sinclair, Technology and the African American Experience: Needs and Opportunities for Study (Cambridge, 2004);
- The College Board, Reaching the Top: A Report of the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement (Princeton, 1999);
- S. McBay, Strategies for Increasing Minority Participation in Science (New York, 1984);
- H.A. Young, "Retaining Blacks in Science: An Affective Model," in G. E. Thomas, ed., Black Students in Higher Education (Westport, CT, 1981);
- Melvin Terell and Doris Wright, eds., From Survival to Success: Promoting Minority Student Retention (Washington, DC: 1988);
- Keith James, Science and Native American Communities: Legacies of Pain, Visions of Promise (University of Nebraska, 2001);
- Ronald E. Mickens, Edward Bouchet: The First African-American Doctorate (World Scientific, 2002);
- Charles Cerami, Benjamin Banneker: Surveyor, Astronomer, Publisher, Patriot (John Wiley and Sons, 2002);
- PBS video series, "Breakthrough: Profiles of African American, Latino, and Native American Scientists and Engineers" (distributed through Blackside.com, 1996).
Part IV: Science and Technology in the Third World
Meeting 10, April 11:
Overview of Science, Technology, and Economic Development
- James Scott, Seeing Like a State, Ch. 8., “Taming Nature: An Agriculture of Legibility and Simplicity,” pp. 262--306 [on Sakai];
- Thomas A Bass, Camping with the Prince and Other Tales of Science in Africa, pp. 3-49 [on Sakai].
"Large Dams, False Promises"
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Clarence Dias, Reaping the Whirlwind: Some Third World Perspectives on the Green Revolution and the 'Seed' Revolution (New York, 1986);
- Vandana Shiva, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology, and Development (London, 1988);
- Ashis Nandy, ed., Science, Hegemony, and Violence (Calcutta, 1988);
- Michael Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Ithaca, 1989);
- Daniel R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire (Oxford, 1981);
- ____________, The Universities, Scientific Research, and National Interests in Latin America," Minerva, 24 (1986): 1-38;
- Joseph Needham and G. Blue, "The Universal Validity of Science, Cultural Relativism, and the Third World," Minerva, 18(1980): 360ff;
- Andrew Pearse, Seeds of Plenty, Seeds of Want: Social and Economic Implications of the Green Revolution (Oxford, 1980);
- David McBride, Missions for Science: U.S. Technology and Medicine in America’s African World (Rutgers University Press, 2002).
- Roy McLeod, ed., Nature and Empire: Science and the Colonial Enterprise (2000)
Meeting 11, April 18:
African Science and Technology
Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Ibulaimu Kakoma, Science and Technology in Africa, pp. 33-70, 383-472.
Sources of Additional Perspectives:
- Thomas Bass, Camping With the Prince and Other Tales of Science in Africa, (1997);
- Thomas Eiseman, "The Implantation of Science in Nigeria and Kenya," Minerva, 17 (1979): 504-526;
- Paul Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution: Ecology and Food Production in West Africa (London, 1985);
- Lee Nichols, ed., Science in Africa: Interviews with Thirty African Scientists (Washington, DC, 1982);
- Andrew Urebu, "Science, Technology, and African Values," Impact of Science on Society, 38 (1988): 239-248;
- J. Goody, Technology, Tradition, and the State in Africa (London, 1971);
- Thomas Odhiambo, “East Africa: Science for Development,” Science 158 (1967):876-881;
- John McKelvey, Man Against Tsetse: Struggle for Africa (Ithaca, 1973).
Meeting 12, April 25:
Course evaluations; beginning of oral presentations [see italicized, underlined sentence in paragraph for information regarding timing of presentations]. Suggestion: please aim for ~20 min. plus questions/answers; a PowerPoint presentation may help you organize your thoughts, but is not required.
Meeting 13, May 2:
Completion of presentation of student papers
Written versions of final research papers due today. No paper will be accepted after this date without a special circumstances excuse from the appropriate college's academic administrator. (Submit papers both in hard copy and by email attachment in Word, WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format no later than 5:00 PM.)